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ESL Grammar Resources

Types of Subjects and Objects           



Single words

Article + Noun

Adjective(s) + Noun

Noun + relative clause



Noun clauses

Dogs, water, Jeffery

The teacher, a cat, some ice

A big, black spider

The man who lives there


To sing

Whatever you do



As Subjects

As Objects

As Complements

A dog is a man's best friend.

Whatever you do is up to you.

Skiing is believing.

He ate ten apples.

I like to eat.

Mr. Trump is my friend.

That is the man (whom) I told you about.

As Objects of prepositions*

    I don't approve of John.

    I don't approve of singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing love songs.

    I don't approve of whatever John does.

    (the person)

    (the action)

    (gerund's subject is possessive)

    (S gerund Obj.)

    (noun clause)

*Be careful. Only gerunds (not infinitives) can be used as objects of prepositions.

    I look forward to Spring.

    I look forward to your party.

    I look forward to seeing you.

    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Gerund

    (In this case, "to" is a preposition, not part of an infinitive.)

    I want to see you.

    I hope to see you.

    I enjoy seeing you.

    I avoid seeing you.

    I'm interested in seeing you.

    I'm tired of seeing you.

    I am accustomed to seeing you.

    S V to V (infinitive)

    S V Ving (gerund)

    Prep + gerund

See also:

Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement

Grammar: Noun Clauses

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