Generally, in, on and at indicate location.
See also : Grammar - Prepositions of Location
To and from imply movement toward or away from something. However, to can also function as part of an infinitive.
To and for can introduce indirect objects.
See also : Grammar - Indirect Objects
For and since can also indicate duration.
See also : Grammar - Present Perfect Progessive
Of is used in partitives (all of, some of . . .) and other expressions.
See also : Grammar - Quantifiers
Many prepositions are also used in expressions.
For further reference:
Grammar : Prepositions and Time Words
Grammar : Adverbs and Prepositions
Grammar : Prepositions and Subordinators
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