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ESL Grammar Resources

Modals Chart           
 

 

 

Modal Past Modal Negative Negative Past
Can Could Can't Couldn't
    Cannot Could not
Could Could have Could not Couldn't have
      Could not have
Will Would Won't Wouldn't
    Will not Would not
Would Would have Wouldn't Wouldn't have
    Would not Would not have
May May have May not May not have
Might Might have Might not Might not have
Should Should have Should not Should not have
Must Had to Must not Must not have
  Must have Mustn't  
Ought to Ought to have Ought not to Ought not to have
Have to Had to Don't have to Didn't have to
Has to   Doesn't have to Did not have to
Have got to      
Has got to      
Be going to Was/were Is/are/am/not going to Wasn't/weren't going to
Be supposed to   Isn't/aren't/am not supposed to Wasn't/weren't supposed to
Be able to Was/were able to Isn't/aren't/am not supposed to Wasn't/weren't supposed to
Be to Was/were to Is/are/am/not to Wasn't/weren't to
Needs to     Needn't
Had better   Had better not  
Used to   Didn't use to  
Be about to Was/were about to Is/are/am not about to Wasn't/weren't about to
Would rather Would rather have Would rather not Would rather not have

See also:
Grammar: Basic Modals
Grammar: Common Modal Usage
Grammar: Past Modals

 


 

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