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ESL Grammar Resources

Conjunctions & Linking Words





Coordinators connect elements of equal importance.

S + V , but

S + V

(and, but, so, or, nor, for*, yet)

S + V and V

S and S + V

N and N

Adj. and Adj.

Phrase and Phrase

Can be used in a series: A, B, C, or D


Subordinators connect elements of unequal importance. One clause is not as strong as the other.


S + V although S + V


(although, even though, because, since*, when, while, before*, after*, whenever, wherever*, if, unless, whether…[or not] as, as [adjective] as, so that, whereas anywhere*, anytime*)


Although S + V , S + V


Sentence Connectors

Sentence Connectors connect paragraphs or show relationship between very different ideas.


    S + V . However, S + V


    (however, therefore, thus, moreover,
    nevertheless, first*, then*, next*, still*
    besides, consequently, furthermore)


    S + V ; however, S + V



    Prepositions show relationship among elements of a sentence.
    They are followed by noun phrases only and cannot take on a S + V.


    S + V (prep. phrase)


    (during, after*, before*, in, on, at

    despite, in spite of, for*, since*, by

    (Prep. phrase), S + V

    like, except, but*, about, to*, from

    between [A and B], among, with

    (Prep. phrase) V + S (unusual)

    within, without, beside, near, next to)


    * These words have more than one function.

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